Ooligan Typecoding Mysteries Revealed

Right between the better-known processes of editing and design, Ooligan manuscripts also undergo a process called typecoding. Just now, for instance, we are in the midst of finishing our edits and typecoding for our upcoming title, Untangling the Knot: Queer Voices on Relationships, Marriage & Identity.Typecoding—also referred to as XML coding or extensible markup language coding—is similar to HTML tagging, and it involves distinguishing each header, citation, paragraph type, font style, etc. in the completed manuscript with a distinctive tag. In XML, tags or markup are distinguished from book content using the > and the < characters, and everything within these symbols is used, either by the designer or the computer, to determine the style of the text within. A backslash (/) is used to denote where a particular use of markup ends. All tags come in pairs—if there’s a beginning, there has to be a matching end somewhere.

At Ooligan, the tag <para> is used most often; it denotes a standard paragraph in a text-heavy manuscript. The tag <emphasis> would denote the use of italic styled font, and the tag <emphasisbold> would denote bold styled font. Much like HTML coding, markup is layered, and things can become a bit sticky when sets of tags aren’t closed out correctly. Incomplete tags are forever the bane of a typecoder’s existence—one missing character could muck with the formatting of an entire piece. For instance, <para> would occur at the beginning of a paragraph and close with a </para> at the end. Paragraphs are fairly short bits of text, and it’s easy enough to remember to close those out, but paragraphs are nestled within <article>s or <chapter>s, and a typecoder must also remember to close out a section so that the computer knows where to break and start all over again. Likewise, a forgotten closer for an <emphasis> tag means unchecked italics for the rest of the document. This can seem straightforward until the scope is multiplied a hundredfold. Applying tags to tens of thousands of words' worth of manuscript is a long, arduous process, and it’s easy to miss a backslash and jeopardize the coding in the entire piece.

Above is an example of a typecodedsegment of one of our recent books, The Ninth Day, as it appears in the XML file format. Note where the corresponding opening and closing tags.

The purpose for typecoding in the manuscript preparation process is threefold.

  • It prepares the book for the designer. Typecoding only occurs when the bulk of editing is complete—a typecoded manuscript is close to its final form. Generally, the final step of the editing process—proofreading—is meant to fix errors that were introduced by the designer. That said, the typecoded document is what the designer uses to create the interior book design. We at Ooligan use InDesign to design our manuscripts, which means we use InDesign styles to keep our interiors consistent. When the books go to design, tags will correspond with styles, either automatically within the program or manually by the designer. Tags are a more effective, more efficient way of transitioning to styles than trying to eyeball a Word document for italics or small caps or different levels of headers. It generally means that the designed manuscript will contain fewer errors during the final proofread.
  • It prepares the book for the creation of an ebook. XML can be read by a computer when packaged with an accompanying cascading style sheet (CSS). A style sheet tells an XML document how each tag should appear and how it should be formatted. It is what dictates the appearance of HTML on webpages, what makes a <header> on one website distinct from the header designation on another, and it is what automatically transitions a piece of XML coding like the one above to a polished and complete e-book.
  • It provides the press with a single, consistent file format that transitions easily between different iterations of software and that does not easily corrupt. Prior to the standardized use of typecoding at Ooligan, we kept final designed InDesign files of our books on file to revisit when the time came for a reprint or a redesign. The problem with using InDesign files for this purpose is that different iterations of InDesign do not necessarily read older files. InDesign files are also large and easily corruptible, and styles sometimes don't transition well between versions. XML can be used with any iteration of InDesign without trouble and never loses its formatting integrity because it is all one flat, easy to work with style. It can be paired with different style sheets, its appearance can be easily changed, and it can be opened with any computer, even if that computer is not equipped with Word or InDesign. It is an excellent and long-lasting universal file format.

The Battle for a Digital Pricing Model that Works Part 3: The Dark Side of the Force & A New Hope

By Rebekah Hunt
The book industry has been slower to evolve than other industries. The big retail chains, who had undercut the already wobbly industry’s prices on paperback books back in the 1980s, are now seeing the same thing done to them by the burgeoning digital market and Amazon.com. Advancements in e-reader technology such as the Kindle and the iPad make the transmission of print media in digital form far more practical and attractive than ever, but the industry has yet to develop a good standard for continuing to profit from the sales of these new kinds of media, as evidenced by the suit filed by the Department of Justice regarding ebook pricing.
Of course, where there is instability, there is vulnerability. One of the primary dangers presented by the lack of a good pricing model for ebooks is piracy. Despite the January 2010 unveiling of the ominous findings from research group Attributor, which showed between 1.5 and 3 million daily Google searches for pirated ebooks; the threat of ebook piracy may be more of a moon than a Death Star.
According to electronicbook-readers.com (see previous blog), “…there are a large number of consumers who are unwilling to pay the current price for ebooks, and they are willing to pirate those books rather than do without. Consumers who feel their needs are met are much more willing to part with their hard earned money than those who are frustrated with companies who simply no longer seem to ‘get’ them and their lifestyle.”
However, they go on to say, “What [publishers] do not realize is that piracy is only a problem when industry does not provide consumption models wanted by particular classes of consumers… The decision to allow her Harry Potter series to be distributed in electronic format is expected to net JK Rowling over 100 million in revenue and has probably cost her triple that amount due to her previous reticence toward ebook distribution.”
Rowling’s resistance to making her golden goose available in ebook format is the stuff of industry legend, demonstrating the entrenched backwardness and misunderstanding of the market that is a major impediment to the progress of book publishing. However, as stated, even Rowling was forced to capitulate to the demands of the market.
A New Hope: The Market Evolves
“The publishing industry… is where the music industry was seven years ago,” electronicbook-readers.com says. They advise that publishers adopt a similar strategy to the music industry and “…ignore piracy of ebooks on non-commercial sites and focus on producing content and connecting with their readers. If digital distributors were to start looking at digital piracy as a business deduction similar to advertising and charity donations and [focus] more on delivering content consumption models that encourage everyone to participate, they would discover a method to survive the massive disruption to their industry that technology has created.”
They encourage the publishing industry to look at the success of Netflix and Napster when developing new models for future business practices. “Such a move early in the fledgling ebook economic model,” they say, “would turn massive numbers of potential pirates into happy consumers paying monthly subscriptions who in turn become a new revenue stream to authors and distributors.”
For book publishers, ebooks integrated with other media are the way the market is going, and pricing models must evolve to meet the need. International publishing conglomerate, the Penguin Group, is extending their reach far into the electronic market. A recent article from appleinsider.com reports that Penguin expects their ebooks to grow from 4 percent to 10 percent of their sales next year, and they will also introduce a series of interactive ebooks for the Apple iPad.
Penguin CEO, John Makinson attributes this to the compatibility of the iPad with the company’s business model. The features of the iPad that are attracting publishers such as Penguin, fit the market trend toward integrating multimedia experiences with books in order to get consumers interested in books again. Makinson states that it is Penguin’s intention to take full advantage of the iPad’s capabilities, saying, “…we’ll be creating a lot of our digital content as applications, to sell on app stores in HTML, rather than as ebooks.” Makinson admits uncertainty concerning the success of these new strategies, however, reflecting the apprehension apparent throughout the publishing industry that the market is still in a precarious position.
Stay tuned for next week’s blog, the Return of the Jedi (an ebook pricing strategy that works)!
Image by Maximilian Schönherr. Used with permission under  the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license.