Ooligan’s Unique Editorial Process

The editorial process, which all books go through to some degree before their publication date, can be arduous, confusing, and complex. This is a negative perspective, yes, and in part I think this is due to conflicting information. In a preliminary Google search of “stages of editing in publishing,” I found that different presses seemed to prefer a different order depending on their processes (see this article, this article, and this article for examples). And this makes sense. While editing might seem quite straightforward at first, the process must be flexible based on the manuscript, the genre, and the press. In this post, I’ll be giving a little bit of insight into how books are edited here at Ooligan, since we do things a little differently.

The process can start as early as acquisitions. A manuscript is accepted either as is or with the understanding that a developmental edit will take place. A developmental edit looks at the overall structure of a book. Its goals include well-developed characters, a logical plot, and clear themes—all that big-picture stuff. If a developmental edit is deemed necessary, the acquisitions team will compile constructive feedback to send to the author, who then makes revisions.

Once a manuscript has been acquired, it goes through its first round of copyediting. Students in Ooligan with editorial experience will volunteer, and small teams will take sections of the book to work on. They work collaboratively and use a style guide so that there are no errors in spelling, grammar, syntax, diction, etc. Copyediting is a much more granular process and therefore requires a couple of rounds. By employing small teams, Ooligan can get this stage done quickly. But any manuscript will have to go through two to three rounds of copyediting to ensure that it is free of errors.

Following the copyediting stage is something called XML typecoding. This is the transition from editorial to design. Coders go through the manuscript and tag design elements (e.g., chapter titles, lists, and bolded and italicised fonts) so that the design team can easily find them when they are putting together the book’s interior.

Once a book has been fully designed, it goes through a couple of stages of proofreading. First is the print proofread, where readers look for design issues and ensure that no errors have been introduced during the design process. This is also the last chance to catch typos. Then we do an ebook proofread, where we make sure that the book looks the same on each ereader platform, that different font sizes still work, and that links to chapters are functioning correctly.

There are also some variations on this general process. More books are featuring diverse characters these days, which is really exciting! However, this means it is becoming increasingly important for books to be read and approved by members of the communities being portrayed in them. Because of this, Ooligan has introduced the concept of an “authenticity edit” for some books. Ideally, this stage happens after developmental editing and before copyediting. Authenticity edits are intended to ensure that the books that are being published do not contribute to any harmful stereotypes and instead celebrate the diversity they feature.

All change, by nature, is a painful process. Growing is often hard to do. I think this is why the editorial stage (and its length) can seem daunting to people. But it is integral to the writing process. Having many eyes on a book during this stage is only going to make it a better read, so there is no need to fear the red pen.

Sage Advice for Learning on the Job

It’s the first day of the new term and you are sitting in your first ever publishing lab ready to take on life at a teaching press. As the room fills up, you start eavesdropping, hoping to pick up something useful. The people to your left are talking about a P.N.L. (or is it P and L?), the group behind you is arguing about what to put in a press kit, and somewhere, someone is loudly complaining about how long it took them to fix their XML coding over the summer, and all of that is before the meeting starts. If you weren’t nervous before, you probably are now, but don’t panic! This particular teaching press is Ooligan, and at Ooligan, there is no such thing as sink or swim (even if the first day feels a little like being pushed face-first into the deep end). So sit back and relax while I lay out some sage advice on how to negotiate this crazy, awesome journey of experiential learning.

  • Immersion is everything. Like every industry, publishing has its own vernacular, and the sooner you jump into it, the faster you’ll learn it. But it’s not just the language you should be paying attention to. Publishing is a many-layered ecosystem with dozens of projects circulating at any given time. The best way to understand the industry at large is to know every step of the process and how those steps interact. The point of a teaching press like Ooligan is to give each student the opportunity to customize their education based on their interests. So, jump in, see what’s happening, and swim over to get involved.
  • Try everything, and try it twice. Even if it isn’t something you think you’ll want to do in the future, it’s a good idea to dip your toes into every available opportunity, if only for the experience. Volunteer to create the web page for Ooligan’s new title, to help with the XML coding, to do an ebook proofread, or to put together a P&L. You’ll be given all the instructions and support you’ll need to complete every assignment and volunteer project, and there are plenty of other people who know what to do if you get stuck. And then, once you’ve tried something, do it again! Practice makes perfect, and it also looks great on your future resume!
  • If you don’t know, ask. No one expects you to know everything on the first day, and more likely than not you’ll be asked to complete tasks that you’ve never done before. Ooligan has dozens of resources to help you, from lessons on marketing plans and copyediting to examples of previous work, not to mention all of the knowledge of your peers in the program. No question is too big or small when you consider that all the work you do for the press has a tangible impact on the success of a real book that was written by a real author who is expecting the press to sell real copies for real money. Ask every question, ask it early, and ask as many people as you can until you feel comfortable and confident in your work.
  • You’re in charge, so act like it. The purpose of a teaching press is to give every student applicable real-life publishing skills that are directly transferable to working at another publishing house. Take ownership of the power you hold within the ecosystem of the press. Your work directly affects the success of the press, so feel entitled to find the place within the press where your skills and interests will be the most useful.
  • Sharing is caring. Publishing is a very interactive industry, especially in a small press like Ooligan, and the need for people with diversified talents and interests is strong. Chances are, you were selected for the program because you’ve already demonstrated practical skills, so feel free to show them off. Just remember that Ooligan is a teaching press where everyone is coming to learn, and the best way to learn is peer-to-peer, so don’t be hesitant about taking knowledge for yourself or teaching your skills to someone else.

With these five tips in mind, you’re all set to get started at Ooligan. You’ve already taken the dive, but don’t forget to enjoy the swim!

A Behind-the-Scenes Look at Being a Publisher’s Assistant

What is a publisher’s assistant? It’s a vague title. Does it involve going on coffee runs and picking up dry cleaning? Do we have designer coats and handbags thrown at us like Anne Hathaway in The Devil Wears Prada?

Definitely not. And certainly not with bosses as wonderful as Abbey Gaterud and Per Henningsgaard. The reason that so many people don’t know what publisher’s assistants do is because so much of the work is meant to be invisible. We work behind-the-scenes in order to facilitate the work of others. The goal of being a publisher’s assistant is to keep the press running smoothly and efficiently. Being a publisher’s assistant is being a resource for the press; we help find answers for people when they don’t know who to ask or when a question doesn’t seem to apply to any other department. We also act as the first point of contact for those interested in finding out more about Ooligan. As publisher’s assistants, we try to know as much as we can about all the current book projects, the different departments, and the press at large. Of course we can’t know everything, so knowing who to direct people to is essential.

Need to know how to mail books? We can teach you. Need to register for copyright or buy an ISBN? No problem. Can’t find some files? We can track them down. We publisher’s assistants specialize in all the small, often forgotten tasks. Our list of tasks is constantly changing, but it’s always keeping us busy. There is a constantly shifting array of work that needs to be done depending on where books are in the publishing process. For example, this week we are organizing office supplies, submitting books for awards, creating event checklists, cleaning up internal resource files, coordinating book mailings, and checking email and voice mails. And we are always, always, always taking meeting notes.

Documentation is a very important part of our job as publisher’s assistants—especially since Ooligan is a student-run press, which means half of the staff graduates from the program every year as new students filter in. Because of this continuous turnover, keeping detailed records of the publication process is essential. This is where the Ooligan Press archives project comes in. The archives is an ongoing documentation process that strives to record the best examples of work and the best resources for future students to utilize in their own efforts. Hopefully this will allow Ooligan to continue to grow more efficient and produce even greater work over time.

Sometimes, though, working behind-the-scenes is hard. People don’t recognize all that we do, and they don’t notice all the small things we accomplish. Sometimes it feels like a thankless job. But thanks isn’t why we do the work. We work to help our colleagues succeed and to help students learn. We work to share great books with the world.

Growing Collaboration in Publishing

Frances: While siblings are always a disappointment, your friends are not—especially when you get to work with them. And at Ooligan Press, we have been increasing the amount of projects we collaborate on, so being able to successfully work with others is a key part of the program.
There are two publisher’s assistants, so obviously we are partners in a lot of our duties and work very closely together. Although there will never be a definite answer to how to work perfectly with others—because every person is different and has their own work habits—the two of us have managed to find methods to successfully work together.
For Melina and I, communication is key to our workflow. If there is a task that one of us is worried about, we help the other one out. If there is a week where I’m slammed with homework and need help completing my PA tasks, I know I can ask Melina for help, and vice versa. Communication has helped the two of us create an atmosphere of respect. That atmosphere has led to the two of us being more honest with each other about our strengths and weaknesses. When we mail books, I always ask Melina to write the address down because I am self-conscious of my handwriting.
Melina: And I am always happy to do so. Writing out addresses isn’t a big deal for me, but knowing it is an added stress to Frances, I make sure to take care of it for her. For my part, I get overwhelmed by too many customer service–type emails, but responding to those is something Frances excels at. While she manages the two larger email accounts, I manage the two smaller ones and the voicemail system. We have divided up these tasks both to suit our skill sets and to minimize our stress.
But this collaboration is not just between the two of us; we have noticed that collaboration is becoming essential in all departments at Ooligan. There are two PAs, two Write to Publish managers, two acquisitions managers, and two editing managers. Dividing up the work not only takes pressure off of individual managers and helps Ooligan continue to thrive, but it also allows the emergence of new and better ideas. Having a partner means being able to think bigger because there is someone there to tell you if you’re crazy or if you’ve hit gold. You have more time to go over things with a fine-tooth comb, improving the quality of your work. And having a friend by your side simply makes the work more fun.
The most important part of working together is understanding that you do have to work. We have a partnership, and it is important to be reliable and do your work. It is always a concern that working with your best friend can ruin your friendship, but luckily the only con that we have found is that we get easily distracted by other things, like coloring books and tacos. Especially tacos.

Designing a Cover

During my first term in the book publishing program with Ooligan Press, I was assigned to the Seven Stitches project team. The manuscript was in the middle of a round of editing and was about to go into copyediting. There were still other tasks to do: sending out blurb requests, writing up the press release, making a tip sheet for the sales kits, and (of course) designing a cover.

The design department opened submissions for covers. After having the first two rounds not yield many results, the design department decided to shake things up a bit and organized a group activity with concept prompts. I partnered with Pamela Wells, another Ooligan student. The cover concept we drew was a collage format inspired by All the Birds Singing, by Evie Wyld. We decided that we would each do our own submission. We discussed what images could be used to represent the story. Things that we decided were crucial included Meryem herself, as we’d collectively decided that the main character needed to be on the cover; the image of cracks in the ground to represent the earthquake; a map of Constantinople and Portland, to represent the travelling between two time periods and locations; and other various things to fill up the space. We’d also decided that since our prompt was a collage with space in between the images, we could use those divisions to represent the earthquake cracks as well.

When I first approached this project, I had an idea that the cracks that would separate the images would be evenly edged and each image would act like a shard of a mosaic to make up one image. I confess that at the time, my image-editing skills were next to nothing, and I had never used Adobe Photoshop, only GIMP. I actually ended up making the outlines for the cracks in Microsoft Paint, since I couldn’t find a shape tool that would allow me to make lines in GIMP.

The most challenging part of this assignment was finding an image of a girl that would faithfully represent Meryem. She is a teenage girl who is described as having bronze skin and long, curly, magenta hair. I found a good placeholder image that didn’t make the cover look too much like a fashion photo shoot or movie poster and closely represented Meryem’s ethnicity.

For the fourth round, each cover that had been voted through was assigned to a group, which included the original designer and one or two consultants to help develop it. Leigh Thomas was assigned to mine, and we decided to develop our own versions. After the department and project managers voted on the submissions from that round, voting was opened up to the entire class in the executive meeting. There were three to vote on, including the cover that Leigh had modified, which was then voted as the official cover design. I was tasked with finding someone willing to be the model for the cover. For the previous two books, the cover models were actually Ooligan students. As we were unable to do the same thing for this cover, a friend of mine was willing to be our model, and we did a photoshoot on campus. As of July 6, 2016, the cover is still undergoing finishing edits.

Ensuring that the cover would fully represent the character was paramount in our team’s vision for the cover. Discussion of diversity in publishing and literature, especially in the young adult genre, has been at the forefront of the industry over the past few years. Most notably, the grassroots organization WNDB (which stands for “We Need Diverse Books,” the Twitter hashtag that went viral and brought diversity to light in 2014) has been advocating for more diversity in children’s literature and publishing since 2014. Since then, the discussion has brought to light the complete lack of diverse characters compared with nonmarginalized characters. We were conscious of this issue, and we’re committed to accurately portraying Meryem on the cover.

The Top Five Emails NOT to Send To Ooligan

As the publisher’s assistants at Ooligan Press, we serve as the first point of contact between the public and the press. In this role, we manage the Ooligan email accounts, and so we answer a number of questions—some of which we wish we didn’t have to. So here are our top five emails NOT to send to Ooligan Press.

  1. Any email addressed solely to “Gentlemen.”
  2. This isn’t the nineteenth century anymore! And demographically speaking, the publishing industry is composed of more women than men. Here at Ooligan, most students are also female—including both of us publishers assistants, our two acquisitions managers, and of course, Head Publisher Abbey Gaterud. If you didn’t know, that’s okay, but may we suggest addressing your inquiries to “Ooligan Press,” or “To Whom It May Concern,” or “Ladies or Gentlemen” even.

  3. Submitting your romance/religion/romantic-religious/space-romance manuscripts.
  4. We have submission guidelines, people! Please read them before you submit your manuscript to us. We don’t want to waste our time or yours.

  5. Requesting author contact information.
  6. So you loved the book; that’s great! You want to tell the author how much you loved it; that’s also great! But we can’t give out an author’s private contact information. You know that. We know you know that because so many of those emails begin, “I know you might not be able to give me this information . . . ” You’ve answered your own question. NO, we cannot give you their information.

  7. Asking us to teach you things.
  8. Ooligan is a teaching press and is operated out of Portland State University, but we have neither the time nor the budget to help teach you how to get your book published. There are plenty of excellent resources available online, and we offer a yearly conference, Write to Publish, which has the goal of demystifying the publishing industry for emerging writers. Each year, Write to Publish provides writers’ workshops, panels, vendors, and speeches hosted by authors and industry professionals, as well as raffles and writing contests. (You can get your tickets here.)

  9. Asking us to do tasks for free.
  10. Ooligan is a teaching press, and we do work on manuscripts, but we are not going to do tasks for free for people looking to self publish. If you are looking to self publish and want someone to tag, edit, or market your book there are freelancers who would be happy to help you, but please do not email Ooligan wanting students to do that kind of work free of charge and for no credit.

Oolies’ Desert Island Picks

It’s an old and painful hypothetical: If you could take only one book with you to pass the time on a desert island, which would you choose? Let’s assume you’ve got survival books memorized and need no book-shaped assistance to get by, even to build your own raft and venture back out to sea and toward civilization. Which book would you decide to spend your time with?

This is obviously a ridiculous question. How are you supposed to choose just one? Never fear, genre-specific categories are here! I (digitally) sat down with a small cross section of Ooligan’s finest to gather some hard data on this common inquiry, narrowing down the options to literary fiction, young adult, and science fiction and fantasy. The rules allowed for up to one book in each category if participants couldn’t narrow it down to a single title. This was possibly a mistake, but only eight people could bear the challenge even with the added leeway—this wasn’t a survey taken lightly.

Literary Fiction

This category was an obvious necessity for a bunch of publishing professionals—you can’t exclude a discussion of literary fiction in a room bursting with English majors. Let’s take a look at the responses:

  • One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez. Multiple respondents chose this novel, exceptionally appropriate for the circumstances and with a title sure to alternately torment and amuse.
  • Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.
  • The Secret History by Donna Tartt.
  • Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell. This was given as a favorite and, as a bonus, an abundant source of kindling should the need arise.
  • The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder.

Young Adult

Though this category might seem less obvious for a group of grad students, it’s too rich and varied an area to ignore, and plenty of us still enjoy at least a small handful of YA novels:

  • Angus, Thongs, and Full-Frontal Snogging by Louise Rennison. A selection to inject hilarity into those sad, stranded days.
  • Protector of the Small by Tamora Pierce.
  • One of the Harry Potter novels by J.K. Rowling. Few who gave this as a pick were able to narrow it down to just one book. I’d likely go for the sixth or seventh, but picking just one for possibly the rest of your life does seem something like a nightmare in itself.
  • Twilight by Stephenie Meyer. This choice was qualified as being half sincere and half comedy, and it does have the benefit of evoking the Pacific Northwest while stuck on that desert isle.

Science Fiction and Fantasy

This category is here on pure favoritism. I like science fiction and fantasy, and so it is here:

  • Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch by Neil Gaiman and Terry Pratchett.
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. Though short, this first installment in Adams’s five-part series was selected to offer laughs and comfort the reader with the reassurance that they’re at least on the same planet as usual.
  • Tigana by Guy Gavriel Kay.
  • The Broken Coil by Sy Itha.
  • Howl’s Moving Castle by Diana Wynne Jones.

And there you have it! The Oolies have spoken. What does it all mean? Who knows. But some of us are prepared, now more than ever. Do you know what you’d choose?

New Student DIY: Building Your First-Term Class Schedule

You spent months collecting letters of recommendation, cultivating your writing samples, hand-selecting each punctuation mark and every turn of phrase on your graduate school application essay. And now you’re in! You did it! You’ll be starting your master’s program in Book Publishing at Portland State next term. Congratulations!

When the time comes for you to register for your first-term class schedule, you may notice that there are a ton of options—required courses and electives, introductory courses and advanced ones, and a wide variety of subjects. If you’re not sure where to start, your fellow Book Publishing students have a few tips on what makes a great first-term class schedule for a newly admitted grad student.

In order to be considered a full-time graduate student, you must enroll in 9 credits or more each term. This might just be the perfect number of credits to shoot for during your first term anyway—a March 2015 survey of current Book Publishing students revealed 74 percent took 9 credits their first term. And whether they took fewer or more than 9 credits themselves, this was the top recommendation our current students have for our new ones. You will find that most classes in the Book Publishing program are 4 credits each, and many survey responders noted that registering for two 4 credit classes and the 1-credit Publishing Lab brings an adequately challenging workload, and the opportunity to get involved at Ooligan Press right off the bat. All the magic at the student-operated Ooligan Press happens during Publishing Lab (1 credit) and Publishing Studio (4 credits), where you’ll be assigned to a project team and work to publish one of our upcoming titles. You’ll need to complete 8 credits at Ooligan before you graduate, so plan accordingly.

In the survey, current Book Publishing student were asked, “If you could do it all over again, which classes would you include in your first-term schedule? In retrospect, which classes helped you the most early on and/or put you at a better advantage in your subsequent classes and work at Ooligan?”

If you want to build a first-term schedule that will provide you with a solid foundation for your publishing education and set you up for success at Ooligan Press and beyond, your future classmates recommend you include a couple of these popular courses:

  • Intro to Book Publishing (recommended by 31 students!): “I think taking Intro and either studio or lab is a must because these two courses work together to give students an overall understanding of the publishing industry as a whole, and they inform all other coursework.”
  • Book Editing (recommended by 16 students): “Editing and Software are really important prerequisites for taking other classes (like Book Design) or participating more fully at Ooligan (working in the editing department).”
  • Lab/Studio (recommended by 15 students): “…it would have saved me some gray hairs if I would have taken Lab my first term. It would have helped me put the pieces together better with a smaller, more manageable workload.”
  • Book Design Software (recommended by 13 students): “Book Design Software is an indispensable (albeit very time-consuming!) class if you come into the program without much experience using design programs.”

For those who plan to work and go to school, you may be interested and relieved to know that 78 percent of our students were able to balance jobs and/or internships during their first term. 46 percent worked 20 hours or fewer and a brave 24 percent worked full time. If you’re new to Portland and you haven’t secured an internship yet or you’re taking a term off from work to focus on your new studies, then you’re in good company—22 percent of current students did not have jobs or internships during their first term.

If you’d like to learn more about registration or find out which classes will (tentatively!) be offered during your first term, visit the Publishing Program’s website for more details and contact information. See you next term!

Ooligan Reaches Out to Local Eco-Friendly Businesses

In 2011, Ooligan Press released Rethinking Paper & Ink: The Sustainable Publishing Revolution. Expanded from a pamphlet of the same name written in 2009 by former Ooligan students Melissa Brumer and Janine Eckhart, the book, which was jointly authored by Ooligan alums Jessicah Carver and Natalie Guidry, sought to increase awareness of sustainable printing practices in the publishing community.

The 2009 edition of Rethinking Paper and Ink was the first of Ooligan’s OpenBook series. Designed to minimize the environmental impact of book production, OpenBook is an auditing process that accounts for different production components and byproducts, including chemicals, greenhouse gases, energy, fiber, and waste; Ooligan produces one title using the OpenBook process each year. Part of what made this process possible for Ooligan was certification from the Green Press Initiative. The Green Press Initiative seeks to reduce the use of paper created from endangered forests and provides a forum for publishers and printers to discuss eco-friendly practices.

With a focus on paper production and converting biodiverse ecosystems into single-species tree plantations, The Green Press Initiative’s standards informed much of the OpenBook audit’s design process. From acquisitions straight down to the finished product, Ooligan considers every part of book production, and with the help of lessons gleaned from The Green Press Initiative, Rethinking Paper & Ink was our attempt to address these matters in a single comprehensive guide.

In some ways, we’ve succeeded. Take, for example, Macmillan Publishers, who use Rethinking Paper & Ink as an in-house guide to sustainability. When one of the Big Five publishers takes notice of a small-press book about sustainable publishing and begins taking steps to make their business more environmentally friendly, it’s not just a victory for your small press—it’s a victory for everyone. Outside the publishing world however, this little tome and its lessons remain a well-kept secret—even in the eco-conscious culture of Portland, Oregon—but we’ve decided to change that.

Over the coming months, Ooligan will be reaching out to the local eco-friendly business community and other organizations and educators concerned with sustainability. From the trendy little restaurant’s printed menus to the giant multinational corporation’s meaty advertising brochures, we interact daily with the world of paper and ink—and there are many ways sustainable publishing can be incorporated into standard business practices. By joining in the sustainability conversation in an active way, we hope to increase awareness of printing options and their environmental implications—and help everyone discover the best choice for their printing needs.

A Moderator’s Perspective on Write to Publish

On January 31, 2015, I had the pleasure of being a moderator for the “How to Fund Your Creative Project” panel at Write to Publish 2015. The panel brought together Chris Morey, Patrick McDonald, Todd Sattersten, Nicole McArdle, and Leia Weathington to demystify a subject that most creatives find incredibly daunting: funding. The experience was a great opportunity to dust off my public speaking skills and get to the bottom of this ever-evolving challenge.

As a moderator, my worst fear was the dreaded hear-a-pin-drop, super-awkward, crawl-under-the-table-and-hide silence that scars novice moderators for life. I made sure to be well prepared with a long list of questions to ask, but the panelists made my job easy. The conversation flowed naturally, and many of my questions came up organically as we talked.

During the conversation, most of the questions really boiled down to the importance of planning ahead. Successful campaigns aren’t successful on their own; they must be carefully created and then maintained throughout their duration. In case you missed the panel, here are a few bits of wisdom from our panelists:

  1. Timing. The best duration for a crowdfunding campaign is about 30 days. This is the sweet spot that gives you enough time to raise funds and promote without losing your audience’s interest or badgering them too much. Be sure to give yourself more time than you think you need when picking your delivery/completion dates.
  2. Marketing. Successful campaigns are preceded by a marketing campaign: people need to know about your project before it goes live. Social media is a great way to promote on a budget, and you should remain vigilant in your promotional efforts during the campaign, too.
  3. Visuals. The content and especially the design of your page could make the difference between a success and a flop. Break up long blocks of text with eye-grabbing visuals, include photos of your rewards if possible, and keep your video short and sweet.
  4. Phrasing. Avoid words like pledge, support, and donate in your descriptive language. You want your fans to know that they are paying for a finished product—not just giving to a cause.
  5. Rewards. Avoid phone charms at all costs. They’re expensive, they break easily, and they kinda suck. Save yourself the headache and spring for a nice print, bookmarks, or special signed editions instead.

While crowdfunding for creative projects has been around as long as publishing has, it means something different today. Preorders have been the dominant method for years, but now platforms like PubSlush, IndieGoGo, and Kickstarter have shaken things up and given writers a new collection of tools. These tools can be used to raise funds by connecting authors and artists to their niche audiences, taking the preorder model and adding more options that can accommodate just about every budget. Even considering the short 45-minute time frame, I feel like the audience (and I) left the discussion with a much fuller understanding of what a successful crowdfunding campaign entails.